Nazi Physics versus Newton and Einstein
By Mauri
World War II, the nuclear bomb and the Nazis thrust upon us a New Age. If numbers are used to describe that age with its awesome power to destroy they wouldn’t be E = mc^{2}, they would be 666. With this new age comes a new physics, cloaked in mystery and deception, based on anything and everything, but logic and order in the world around us. I call this New Physics, Nazi Physics. Why? The reason is because the Nazis had direct control over who contributed and by what rules. How do I know? I was there. (See My Story- Child Pornography.)
Remove the Nazi influence, return to our Newtonian roots, update with Einstein and a simpler, more logical Universe results. In the battle between Einstein and Quantum Mechanics, why such a decisive victory against Einstein? The answer is simple, he was Jewish. The resulting Nazi idea, an explosion created the Universe, does not withstand the test of simple observation. The following argument proposes a universe based on more classical ideas in physics.
The Universe is expanding; the red shift from the stars says this is so. But expanding does not necessarily mean exploding. And Big Bang is the description of an exploding universe. But where is the center for the Universe to explode from or the empty center, which an explosion would create? Where is the moving front? An explosion does not explain the clustering of galaxies, nor the uniformity of the microwave background. When the Universe cools, where does the energy go?
The simplest possible universe is the one that closest fit the observations. This is a universe of continuous, connected and finite space. If a wave is created in this space, it will change by two parameters. It will contain something and it will be smaller. To give a visual demonstration of these points, let a tablecloth represent the three-dimensional universe in a two dimensional form. Take the eraser end of a pencil; press hard on the cloth and turn. The cloth now covers less of the table or is smaller and it contains something, a central wrinkle of more
E = mc^{2} = hf h = Planck's constant
Empty Space Space Contracted by an Energy Wave
Table-cloth Universe
Figure 1
concentrated cloth. You have just put an energy wave in the center of our cloth universe. Energy may be described as a spinning vortex that maintains a concentrated space. The two equations that describe energy, E = mc^{2} and E = hf, also describe spinning motion. If energy is lost, empty space increases; just as the tablecloth becomes larger if you pull out the wrinkle. On a larger scale, energy maintains the size of the Universe. As energy decreases, empty space increases. By this theory, an expanding universe must be accompanied by a rather uniform red shift in energy waves.
As energy is converted to space, the Universe cools and expands. According to Big Bang, the red shift is due to the Doppler effect of motion. According to the expanding space model, the red shift is due to a loss of energy or "tired photon". But in order to keep the same relative distance between galaxies, by Big Bang, it is necessary to move them apart by increasing velocities. As galaxies become very distant their velocity must become greater than the speed of light. An expanding space model solves this problem, where everything separates equally, uniformly, more like the raisons in a cake as it bakes. No favored positions are created and the Universe may appear to be the same everywhere. The Universe may grow old gracefully. The effects of gravity dramatically change what would otherwise be a uniform process, resulting in clusters of matter and great volumes of empty space.
Figure 2
The Michelson-Morley experiments, which attempted to prove the ether, but was considered to have failed to do so, are explained by Special Relativity. There is more evidence in favor of a space medium than against it. If everything is a spinning wave in a continuous space medium, what is the evidence? The equation for a wave is wavelength equals velocity divided by frequency. For a wave that spins, the wavelength equals two pi times the radius of the circular motion.
Energy: E = hf = mc^{2}
Energy is a wave: l = v/f
Energy spins: l = 2pr
Physics has already described these waves. The Maxwell wave describes the photon of light; the Compton wave describes the rest energy of the particle; and the de Broglie wave describes the kinetic energy of the particle.
Since on a cosmic scale, energy waves only very slowly red shift into an empty space, on the short term, the increase in empty space can be ignored. The conservation of energy, momentum, and since energy waves spin, angular momentum, must occur. Rest energy waves (particles) have angular momentum of Planck's constant divided by four pi and moving energy waves (light) have angular momentum of Planck's constant divided by two pi. Different kinds of energy waves vary by such parameters as velocity of propagation; and they can change from one type into another as long as the conservation laws are obeyed.
Returning to our cloth universe model, spinning the cloth not only condenses it proportional to the frequency of the turns of the pencil, but it also produces fields of wrinkles in the entire cloth, due to the fact that the cloth is continuous and connected. Energy waves spinning in a space that is continuous and connected should also produce such fields and they do, electromagnetic fields and gravitational fields.
As these fields dissipate into space, they are continually re-formed at their source. Therefore the fields follow the source (energy wave). Since the fields spread outward into three-dimensional space, they diminish by a factor of 1/(4pr^{2}), (1/ the surface area of a sphere), creating the inverse square law for electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
Gravitational fields are produced by rest energy waves (matter) and are proportional to the frequency of those waves. Space condenses slightly in a gravitational field, creating a lens effect. The field disappears into space at the same rate that it is formed, so it remains constant, if the matter remains constant; and the field moves with the matter.
The material of our cloth universe is made up of threads, which cross each other on the perpendicular, the warp and the weft. When the pencil turns the cloth, these threads cross each other. Likewise, an electromagnetic field is produced by the spinning energy wave, which is proportional to the rate at which the spin cuts the lines of force of the weft versus the warp of space. These waves dissipate into three-dimensional space by the inverse square law. The electromagnetic waves give the energy wave the properties of a mechanical torsion wave which propagates forward, perpendicular to its twisting motion, at a speed determined only by the nature of the medium. In our space, that speed is c, the speed of light. The speed of light varies with the space medium, and the space medium varies slightly in gravitational fields.
The kinds of waves contained in our universe include, four primary types including particle waves (matter), photon waves (light), kinetic energy waves (momentum) and neutrino waves (created to maintain conservation laws); and two secondary types including gravitational fields and electromagnetic fields.
The electromagnetic fields of a primary energy wave are proportional to the rate at which the plane cuts the perpendicular of space as the wave spins in space. That rate is dependent of its velocity, which is c. Maxwell's wave (photon of light) describes a wave that propagates through space perpendicular to its twisting motion. If the winding motion of the photon is viewed in relationship to a particular plane in space, then as the photon winds perpendicular to the plane, cutting the line of force in space, maximal electromagnetic fields are produced. As the winding motion is parallel to the plane, minimal electromagnetic fields are produced. The electric field is positive for 180 degrees of the turn and is negative for the remaining 180 degrees. These electric fields may add constructively or destructively. The electric field is formed perpendicular to the magnetic field and the electromagnetic fields are perpendicular to the velocity forward.
Electromagnetic fields eliminate two dimensions in space in which energy may move. The option that remains is that the energy must propagate into the third dimension, which is perpendicular to the first two. If the electromagnetic fields are reduced or eliminated, the constraint that motion must occur perpendicular to the fields is also reduced or eliminated. Thus the wave properties of the photon may be explained. The fields are eliminated every 1/2 wavelength of the photon, and they may also be reduced or eliminated when two or more photons neutralize their electromagnetic fields by destructive interference.
The particle wave is also postulated to propagate at c, but in this case the motion is in a circle, giving the particle rest energy (versus kinetic). If the particle wave has circular motion, the spin of the wave continually cuts the perpendicular from one direction giving the particle unit charge, positive or negative. The sine wave created by the forward (kinetic) motion of the photon has both positive and negative fields giving the photon neutral charge. The amount of charge produced by the particle depends only of the speed of motion, which is always c, the speed of light. Only a change in c will change the charge produced.
The waves of matter are accurately described by the Compton wave, which has a wavelength the circumference of its circular motion at c. The wavelength equals 2pr. The hypothetical wavelength of the electron's circular motion is 2.426 x 10^{-10}cm. And the hypothetical wavelength of the proton's circular motion is 1.321 x 10^{-13}cm. It is no wonder the electron has escaped the nucleus; its wavelength is too big for it to reside there. For a wave to move in a circle it must have a centripetal force:
Centripetal Force = mc^{2}/r l = 2pr
Lambda Constant = L = hce_{o} / e^{2 }=^{ }68.52
hc = 68.52 e^{2} / e_{o}
mc^{2 }/ r = hf / r = hc / l r
mc^{2} / r = 68.52 e^{2} / 2 pe_{o} r^{2 }= 137.04e^{2} /4pe_{o} r^{2} ^{ } |
The centripetal force turns out to be the strong nuclear force, which is also the inverse of the fine structure constant times the Coulomb force.
Without the electromagnetic fields to direct the motion of the photon's energy, that energy has an increased option of moving in any direction.
Figure 3
The photon crosses the perpendicular from both directions giving rise to neutral charge.
The particle crosses the perpendicular from only one direction giving rise to only positive or negative unit charge.
Figure 4
If the particle wave forms a thin disk by its circular motion, the moment of inertia. I, of a thin disk equals one half the mass times the radius squared. The angular momentum, L equals the moment of inertia times the angular velocity, w.
I = (1/2) (mr^{2}) L = Iw w = c / r
L = mcr / 2 r = h / mc 2p L = h / 4p
The particle has an angular momentum of h / 4p or spin 1/2.
The photon moves forward in space at c, as it spins 360 degrees. Therefore the moment of inertia of the photon may be equated to an orbit, with the mass equivalent located entirely on the circumference.
I = mr^{2} mc^{2} = hf m = hf / c^{2}
r = c / 2 p f L = h / 2 p
The angular momentum of the photon is h / 2 p, which translates to spin one. Those energy waves that maintain a rest energy have spin 1/2 and those that maintain a kinetic energy have spin 1.
The force of gravity and of Coulomb come from the particle, not from the field itself. These fields can only change the particle wave's velocity, they can't supply energy. (If they did conservation laws would be broken.) Gravitational fields change speed (c slows), and electromagnetic fields change direction of motion. The particle does exchange potential energy for kinetic energy, just as physics has always postulated. Gravitational fields slow c by the lens effect of condensing space. If c slows, the rest energy of the particle (and the centripetal force, because less charge is produced) decreases. E = mc^{2}. The lost rest energy is converted into kinetic energy according to the rules of the conservation of energy.
If the charge (e) is added constructively or destructively, as it is in an electric field, the centripetal force of the particle changes likewise. (Less charge = less force = less rest mass.) Therefore, charge from neighboring particles change the rest energy of the particles by their interaction. However, energy must be conserved, so the lost rest energy becomes kinetic energy as charged particles move together or apart by the Coulomb force. In an expanding universe, energy must flow down hill (because an infinitesimally small amount of energy is being lost into empty space), therefore a red shift (rest energy decrease) of the particle would be favored. As rest energy is converted into kinetic energy, the particle moves in the direction of an even greater loss of rest energy.
Gravity is a closed energy system in which mass is decreased by the effects of a condensed space and then increased by motion. The orbit of the planets around the sun nicely demonstrate this as the energy is traded back and forth between kinetic and rest energy. As the planet approaches the star, it becomes slightly larger as it redshifts into a lower energy, longer wavelength state. The lost energy is transferred to its velocity, and so the planet speeds up. As the planet rounds the star, it is thrown back out into space by its own increased speed. But the farther away in the gravitational field the planet moves, the more its atoms must gain in rest energy, blue shift or become smaller. To do this, energy is removed from its velocity and its speed slows down. When the planet's speed reaches a certain low point, it again begins to fall inward toward the star.
Figure 5
These ideas on the motion of the particle waves present a problem if the wave is speculated to move in a circle at c. How can it add the speed of forward motion, if it is already traveling in a circle at the speed of light, its maximum speed? The answer lies in the Lorentz Transformations or the rules of Special Relativity. If we assume that the Compton wave, maintaining the particle's rest energy, can move no faster when in forward motion than when at rest, then we must account for the apparent additional speed of the forward motion. The geometry of this combined motion is shown in the following figure.
A spiral is created when the Compton wave, moving in a circle, also moves forward.
A = original circular motion of the wave when the particle is at rest.
B = dilated revolution of the wave resulting from forward motion.
V = forward speed
Figure 6
By the theorem of Pythagoras: A^{2} + V^{2} = B^{2}
Because c is the total speed, and since B represents the entire motion of the wave, both forward and circular,^{ }B = c.^{ }Therefore: ^{ }
A^{2} / B^{2} = (B^{2} / B^{2}) - (V^{2 }/c^{2} ) ^{ } ^{ } | A^{2 }/ B^{2} ^{ }= 1 - V^{2 }/ c^{2 } ^{ } | A / B = (1-V^{2}/ c^{2})^{1/2 } |
lB = lA (1 / (1 - V^{2}/ c^{2} )^{1/2} ) |
And because one revolution is dilated a time dilation occurs.
The motion of the Compton wave, as it moves forward at 1/2 the speed of light, with its circular plane in the direction of motion, produces a diameter contraction.
^{ }
The motion of the Compton wave, as it moves forward at 7/10 the speed of light, with its circular plane in the direction of motion, produces a diameter contraction.
Figure 7
In order for the time dilation to remain the same for every orientation of the wave in space, a contraction of the wave in the direction of motion must occur. The wave is contracted in the direction of movement by a factor of (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}. Line C = (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} D. The time for one complete rotation is dilated by a factor of 1 /(1- v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}. This slows decay rates and so dilates time. Line Z = (1/(1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2})p D.
But, where is the relativistic mass increase? The wavelength of the particle is red shifted causing a rest energy decrease! Returning to our two dimensional cloth universe, if you turn the pencil into the cloth and move it forward at the same time, the cloth bunches up in front of the motion and stretches out behind. One revolution also takes longer. Just as the pencil turning and moving across the cloth, the moving Compton wave is also subject to the Doppler effect. Therefore the total energy necessary for the moving wave is found to equal Planck's constant times the frequency of the red shifted Compton wave, times the Doppler effect approaching a point in space, times the Doppler effect leaving the same point in space.
Total Energy = (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} hf / (1-v/c)(1+v/c) = mc^{2 }/^{ } (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2 } = relativistic energy of particle |
The second or kinetic energy wave is called the de Broglie wave and it has been verified by experimentation. At non-relativistic velocities, the Kinetic energy is 1/2 the energy of the de Broglie wave.
de Broglie wave energy = mv^{2} KE = (1/2) mv^{2}
The de Broglie wave energy must be twice the kinetic energy of the moving particle in order to replace the lost rest energy of the red shifted Compton wave and still account for the additional energy of motion. The red shift of the moving particle's rest energy wave is reflected in the time dilation and the diameter contraction of the particle, the Doppler effect for electromagnetic radiation interacting with the particle, and in the resultant kinetic energy of the particle. Decay rates are decreased under the influence of either gravity or high speed motion.
The de Broglie wave, like the photon, directs the forward motion of the particle. And because it is a wave, it gives the moving particle, wave properties; just as the bundle of energy of the photon gives light, particle properties. The electromagnetic fields of the kinetic energy waves may be equated to a funnel. They guide the path of the primary energy by the fact that the primary energy wave moves perpendicular to the secondary electromagnetic waves. And this is true whether the electromagnetic waves are produced by the primary energy waves or they are produced elsewhere. Much of our technology is based on this fact, where energy created in one place is directed to flow to another.
Particle physics brings us into a whole new world. And because these interactions are not simple, it is also not well understood. But if one looks over the experimental data, a few relationships do pop out.
Energy can change its form. Kinetic energy waves may become photons in radio towers. Photons may become kinetic energy waves or heat (kinetic motion of matter) by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by molecules. Particles may become photons by pair annihilation and vice versa, by pair production, as long as conservation laws are followed.
The particle wave has charge that moves in a circle, therefore it has a magnetic moment, which may be easily calculated from the current times the area of its circular rotation. The value is inversely related to mass. The theoretical value matches the experimental for the electron, but is incorrect for the proton and the neutron. The neutron has a magnetic moment of -1.9 times the calculated value, showing the presence of a large negatively charged component. The magnetic moment of the proton is 2.79 times the calculated value showing a positive component approximately 1/3 the mass of the proton. By this it is assumed that these nuclear particles have internal structure.
If these nuclear particles create a disk shape (concentrating Coulomb’s force times 137.04), these components would likely stack by rouleau forming a chain as they spin in the nucleus. If the proton contained three of these waves, + - +, and the neutron contained two, + - n, (the positive components being more massive explaining the magnetic moment), then an interesting relationship is found. The nucleus of Iron-56, the most stable element known, has a total of 138 waves (excluding the neutrinos). This nucleus, by our model, would be roughly spherical, the diameter of the chain approximately equaling its length. Before and after Iron-56, which has the largest nuclear binding energy of the elements, the binding energy drops off.
High energy particles only allow discrete masses:
Particle mass = electron mass ^{.} L ^{ .} N L = 68.52 N = integer
For the high energy particles, if they are neutral, their mass runs about 5 MeV less than the above calculation predicts. If the particles are charged, they are closer to the predicted value. One notable exception is the mass of the proton. It is 7 MeV less than expected. The proton appears to have fallen into an energy hole, perhaps accounting for its stability.
If the electron of hydrogen absorbs a photon and is therefore put into a circular orbit around the nucleus, that orbit must have an angular momentum exactly the same as the photon it has just absorbed. That angular momentum is Planck's constant divided by two pi. If the electron's velocity in orbit is the speed of light divided by two times the lambda constant, then the radius of the orbit is the same as the first Bohr orbit.
Angular momentum = mvr = h / 2p
Electron's speed = c / 2 L L = 68.52
First Bohr r = ( h / 2p mc) (2 L) orbit |
The first Bohr orbit is the inverse of the fine structure constant times the radius of the Compton wave of the electron. The kinetic energy of the electron is the same as the ionization potential of hydrogen.
KE = (1/2) mv^{2} = mc^{2} /(8 L^{2}) = 0.511 MeV/(8 L^{2}) = 13.6 eV
Electron shells also form simple patterns:
Number of electrons in a full shell = 2 X^{2}
X = 1,2,2,3,3,4,4
The ionization potential of the last remaining electron in the electron shells form a pattern.
Ionization potential of lone electron = 13.6 eV x (At. No.)^{2}
H = 13.6 eV x 1^{2} = 13.6 eV
He = 13.6 eV x 2^{2} = 54.4 eV
Li = 13.6 eV x 3^{2} = 122 eV
Be = 13.6 eV x 4^{2} = 218 eV
B = 13.6 eV x 5^{2} = 340 eV
By this theory our Universe will likely continue to expand until it has exhausted its energy, at which time it will have nothing left to do but start contracting. God loves to repeat Himself. Nature is basically cyclic. I see no reason why our universe should be an exception. Of the possible scenarios, perhaps when the universe comes to the end of its energy unwinding, it will begin winding in the other direction. A matter universe becomes an empty universe, becomes an antimatter universe, ad infinitum. According to this theory the universe cannot contract by gravity, since there is little or no matter left when contraction begins. Further in a contracting universe energy flows up hill, so gravity would be repulsive (anti-gravity) rather than attractive. A cyclic universe would ultimately create balance.
What lies beyond our three dimensional universe? If space defines our three dimensions, and the physical is a mere wave in that space, then beyond the universe is a place where the physical can never go. Twentieth century physics can accurately describe matter as a wave. Perhaps beyond our finite universe lies other dimensions; and since our universe is the same everywhere, having no favored spot, one could not travel to a better place to reach the other dimensions than the place one is presently in. Can spirit, which is non-physical, non-Newtonian, simply slip beyond into the hypothetical other dimension? The World's Religions have through recorded time speculated that this is so.
Does science prove or disprove another dimension beyond the three of our physical world? Is there a place beyond this place, where the acts of our physical existence are judged? Does God have His own justice, His own rules and His own home? I deeply feel, in my near death experience, that I went to a place not of this three dimensional universe. Did my spirit escape to the place of God and then return to my physical body?
What do we know of our physical existence? Newton's laws rule! Einstein's insights are established. Energy does equal matter times the speed of light squared. I am because I follow the laws of physics. When and wherever I move in my physical existence I do so in three dimensional space through a linear time. These ideas just as clearly do not rule out a spiritual existence. Consciousness in not necessarily Newtonian in nature.
Is the universe an illusion created out of nothing but waves in empty space? Is that space a part of a multidimensional system in which three of those dimensions create space itself? Are the fourth and beyond the place of God? Is spirit other than physical and have connections to all dimensions? Did our original creation happen in the instant that God conceived of space, or space conceived of God? Being both physical and spiritual we are intricately tied to both events. Does "one space" define a physical existence of which we are a part and connected to everything else? Does "one God" define a spiritual existence of which we are a part and connected to everything else?
"One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all."
Ephesians 4:6
© 2004 by Mauri